Provention of Coronavirus
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Prevention of COVID-19 is our mission
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Section - 1 



 2 Structure and function of Covid-19


 3 Common modes of transmission


 4 Life cycle of virus


 5 The Genetic code


 6 Common Symptoms of virus


 7 Defense mechanisms against covid-19


 8 Preventive measures






Section - 2 

 10 Structure and function of Human body


 11 Human nutrition


 12 Physical exercises


 13 Stress management and positive lifestyles




Note: THIS IS NOT COMPLETE BOOK ? ( these are samples of some pages )
COVID-19 can survive for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel, less than 4 hours on copper and less 24 hours on cardboard. There are a number of modes of transmission such as : Person to person, especially from people who are in close contact , i.e. within 6’

● Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes
● Talking face to face in close vicinity spreading fine particles
● Some particles will settle on objects in close vicinity
● By touching surface of contaminated places then hand, mouth, nose and eyes , spreads the virus
● New evidence suggests transmission from animals to human and vice versa. Spread is fast while in a closed space and circulating air carrying fine droplets to longer distances.
Figure 1-3: Duplication of DNA
Note: THIS IS NOT COMPLETE BOOK ? ( these are samples of some pages )
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is also called “thread of life”, as it is capable of self duplication , resulting in growth and development in all living cells. The diagram below, Figure 1-3, illustrates the phenomenon of duplication of DNA . :
Figure 1-3: Duplication of DNA
As described earlier, the body is made up of cells which contain chromosomes. The chromosomes (rod shaped structures) are found in the nucleus of the cell that hold the genetic material called genes , which carry hereditary instructions that act as the blueprints for life. Each chromosome contains deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. When the cell divides, the two new cells have identical DNA molecules. Each chromosome contains hundreds of genes. Recent human genome studies have determined that there are about 100,000 genes in humans. The unique combinations of genes give each of us our individual characteristics. Passed from parent to child, genes constitute the genetic makeup of each individual. At conception, 23 (22+1)chromosomes from each parent join to make 23 pairs (2n=46). Genes determine traits, such as tissue and organ development, determination of sex, blood type, hair color, eye color, skin color, etc. Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. For example, the gene for brown eyes is dominant over the recessive gene of blue eyes, dark hair dominant over light hair, farsightedness over normal vision, etc. The genes encode genetic information for the synthesis of specific enzyme molecules , and the enzymes in turn promote the metabolic interactions. Gene expression is also influenced by environmental factors that may enhance the development of a trait. At the end of each chromosome, there are telomeres. Scientists have found that the decrease in the length of telomeres and levels of the telomerase are markers of aging, disease risk, and premature death in several types of cancer. Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn won a Nobel Prize for researching the relationship between telomere length and influence of telomerase enzyme. Scientists liken telomeres to the plastic caps found on shoe laces as they protect the chromosomes from wearing away or sticking together. Telomeres protect our genetic data as cells divide. Scientists now use telomere length and levels of telomerase as indicators of cellular aging. Cells can divide only about 50 to 70 times in humans with the telomeres getting progressively shorter until the cells become aged and die. This phenomenon is related to aging and the physiological/ stress. There are several stresses which can accelerate cellular aging: Oxidative stress ; : Oxidative stress results from free radicals , which are unstable molecules , capable of stripping electrons from other molecules , in the effort to become stable. When you produce more free radicals by smoking, excessive alcohol intake,smog or inflammation, you create oxidative stress. Oxygen is very essential for life. The same oxidation process that causes a cut apple to turn brown , or metal to rust , due to free radicals of oxygen also causes your body to ‘rust’ inside. Metabolic stress : Metabolic stress results from overeating, especially when eating energy dense foods that are high in animal fats and sugar with high glycemic index. or by the poor nutrition due to lack of proteins and minerals. Psychological or physical stress : Psychological or physical stress raises your blood pressure, heart rate, and stress-related hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. Sustained high stress depletes the body’s reserves. It hampers immunity and contributes to decreased telomere length. A blood test has been designed in Britain to measure length of telomeres and correlate it with the speed of aging in humans. According to some research, this test will be able to determine whether a person’s ‘biological age’, as measured by the length of their telomeres, is older or younger than their actual chronological age. There is an indication that shorter telomere may cause shorter lifespan. It is not yet known whether longer telomeres are going to give you longer lifespan. Some viruses, such as COVID-19 do not have their own DNA and are dependent on the host DNA to replicate and multiply.
When the human immune system encounters a virus, it produces antibodies , which binds to the virus and neutralizes its infectivity or marks it for destruction. This phenomenon is most effective to defend host cells. Antibody presence in blood serum is often used to determine whether a person is exposed in the past , with tests, such as ELISA . (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). This test detects and measures antibodies in the blood related to certain conditions, such as viral or bacterial infection. The Immune system protects the body against antigens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens). It produces white blood cells or leukocytes, including B cells and T cells. If the immune system is weakened, it becomes vulnerable to all kinds of diseases. Immunoglobulin or antibodies react to the specific antigen. Immunity is of two types: active or passive. Active immunity describes the body’s own determination and response to disease or by vaccination. Passive immunity describes the introduction of antibodies from elsewhere, either by injection of antibodies or from the mother. Unlike active immunity, which creates “memory”, cells are the immediate recognition of repeated invasion by a pathogen. Passive immunity is usually only temporary. When someone has fever, it may be a sign that the body’s immune system is working to fight off an infection and may develop antibodies to fight off future invasion of the same pathogen. The immune system is compromised or weakened under stress. It is crucial to alleviate stress so that the Immune system can function at the optimum level. Some techniques are described in ‘Stress Management’ . Nutrition plays a major role in optimizing the effectiveness of the immune system. Fetal undernourishment can cause a lifelong impairment of the immune system. Similarly, Nutritional deficiency in elderly can lower the efficiency of the immune system and they are vulnerable to infectious diseases, especially viral diseases like coronavirus. Mortality rate of people over 60 is higher than other populations. As people age, the decline in immune function is related to decreasing vitamin D levels. T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. The immune system plays a crucial role in repair and regeneration of cells. Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection. The symptoms of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, and pain due to increased blood flow. Inflammation is produced by cytokines , which are released by injured or infected cells. Cytokines are essential but over production can cause a ‘cytokine storm’. Optimum level of cytokines is essential for better efficiency of the immune system. Ultimate prevention and eradication of COVID-19 will depend upon herd immunity and vaccination. The second defense mechanism is Cell-mediated immunity , which involves immune cells known as T cells . They recognize strange viral fragments on the surface of cells and activate the immune system.
● I nterferon is a substance that is naturally produced when an infection is detected and stimulates other parts of the immune system. It is a kind of antiviral remedy.
● Vaccination against virulent is a preventive measure. Although it is a long process, once proved safe, it can save a lot of lives. A typical example is influenza H1N1 vaccine.
● Research is being carried on preventative and symptom suppression at global level. Recently FDA has approved use of hydroxychloroquine even though it needs further studies.
COVID-19 seems to spread easily from person to person especially in congested homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and other crowded places. This virus is considered a zoonotic spillover, meaning that it can jump from animals, such as bats and snakes. A recent incidence at the New York Zoo included a Malayan tiger, Nadia, tested positive with Covid-19. This Tiger interacted with a zoo staffer who was a carrier of COVID-19. This will be a dangerous process once it is a widespread phenomenon. COVID-19 can be carried on ony droplets released by coughing and sneezing. It may also be transmited when someone touches a contaminated surface and then touches his/her mouth, eyes or nose. As soon as the viral particles get into the human airway, it penetrates cell membrane and nuclear membrane and hijacks the DNA of the host cell. At that moment it is able to replicate itself quickly. In the beginning, the virus enters the nasal passage or throat and starts replicating which is a highly contagious stage. Eventually the particles enter lungs and start infecting the neighboring cells. Sometimes the host may not show symptoms for a few days. The host becomes a carrier and is able to transmit virus particles to the next host. This asymptomatic carrier is more dangerous because you are unaware of the carrier. COVID-19 is known to survive several hours on countertops, door knobs, faucets, contaminated clothes, jewelry, cardboard, etc. There are a number of modes of transmission such as: Person to person, especially from people who are in close contact, i.e. within 6’
● Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes
● Talking face to face in close vicinity spreading fine particles
● Some particles will settle on objects in close vicinity
● By touching surface of contaminated places then hand, mouth, nose and eyes , spreads the virus
● New evidence suggests transmission from animals to human and vice versa.
. Autophagy:
Dr. Yoshimori Ohsumi won the Nobel Prize in 2016 for his work on autophagy. A cell is capable of synthesizing degraded cell parts to maintain cellular integrity. Cells respond to different types of stresses , such as starvation and physical exertion. Autophagy can also help the body get rid of invaders such as bacteria, viruses , and fungi, and utilize those for rebuilding new cells. It can also help counteract the negative effects of aging, type II diabetes, and Parkinson’s diseases. One can simply use the analogy of a new car to understand autophagy. After a few years of use, it may suffer wear and tear and eventually no longer be performing as usual. One can replace worn out parts to maintain its integrity. Similarly worn down body cells are repaired by using recycled old parts and rebuilding new cells. This process is constantly happening in living cells. This phenomenon can be expedited by carbohydrate restriction, protein, and lipid moderation. Ketosis and autophagy have some common features and can be used effectively to treat a number of human ailments. There is a lot of interest in the scientific community to use these principles for optimum health performance.
The digestive system is also called gastrointestinal tract (GI) or alimentary canal converts food into sugars, amino acids, fatty acids etc so that it is capable to get converted into energy and primarily acts as a source of nourishment. The GI tract is a continuous tube like structure that begins at the mouth, and through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and ends at the rectum and anus. Other organs of the GI tract are liver, pancreas, etc. The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins in the mouth. The teeth grind food into small pieces when that is mixed with saliva, enzymatic action starts converting starch into sugar. The stomach contains glands that secrete gastric juices containing enzymes, chiefly pepsin, and hydrochloric acid (Hcl) which further breaks down the food into smaller particles. The carbohydrates ultimately are converted into glucose which passes through the stomach quickly. Ordinarily food leaves the stomach in 3 to 5 hours. Proteins and fats take longer to break down and get absorbed. The end of the stomach opens into the duodenum which is the first section of the small intestine where food is mixed with secretions from the liver, gallbladder , and pancreas which begin to break down proteins into amino acids, carbohydrates into glucose, and lipids into fatty acids and glycerin. The liver is the largest organ of the human body, weighing about four pounds. It acts as storage for fat-soluble vitamins , such as vitamins A, D, glycogen , and blood coagulation factors. It manufactures enzymes, cholesterol , and vitamins. The liver produces bile which helps in the digestion of fats. It also filters out harmful substances and waste.The pancreas secretes ahormone called insulin which metabolizes sugars.Pancreatic juices contain different digestive enzymes such as lipase which splits fat , and protease which splits proteins. All the nutrients are absorbed through villi in the intestinal linings into the bloodstream. The substances which are not digestible and remaining water enter into the large intestine, rectum , and are evacuated through the anus.
● Exercise increases metabolic rate, thereby burning more calories for an extended period after the activity. This residual effect (after burn) is the greatest benefit from burning calories by exercising.
● Fat is burned basically in the muscles, therefore it becomes crucial to build muscle mass to shed extra fat. One of the effective methods to build muscle mass is by Anaerobic exercises, accompanied by balanced nutrition with an adequate amount of proteins. All the methods described here are without the use of drugs (non-pharmacological). All the concepts are derived from scientific research, human experience from different cultures and common sense. Resistive muscle training will develop musculature. Start with a light exercise program with 4 to 5 pushups and squats using your own body mass as resistance. Increase by 15 minutes per week for a month. Eventually it will become a habit. See appendix 1, for illustrations of various exercises. Another concept is becoming popular, called high intensity interval training to burn fat. It alternates between very strenuous bursts of activity and less intensively recovery time. It involves 30 seconds of gentle running, 20 seconds at moderate pace, and then 10 seconds of full-out effort for a total of 1 minute. Do three replications of five minutes each with two minutes of between each.S 13.
There is evidence that stress can suppress the immune system, increasing susceptibility to viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Moreover, the build- up of stress can contribute to anxiety and depression which may further affect efficiency of the immune system. There are ways to elicit the relaxation response to neutralize stress such as ;
When faced with a challenging situation, your muscles tense, your heart rate and blood pressure increase, you may perspire and you may even notice a gripping sensation in your stomach. Excessive stress if left uncontrolled, can cause ulcers, migraines and heart attacks. Stress can be positive as well which may help you to concentrate, focus and perform. Then, when the challenge has been met, take the time to relax and enjoy their achievements. This relaxation response allows you to build up the physical and emotional reserves to meet the next challenge and is one of the key elements of positive stress. Relaxation is the best method to reduce stress caused by anxiety and tension. Some of the recreational activities can abate physical and mental stress and create a state of joy. There are many benefits of relaxation. It can help you feel better, think more clearly and avoid headaches and muscular tension. There are several ways to relax:
Deep breathing can help to alleviate stress and focus quietly on the present moment.
● Find a quiet and relaxing place wearing loose and comfortable clothes. Close your eyes and imagine yourself being at the most beautiful place on the planet.
● Place both hands in your lap.
● Breathe in deeply so that your belly gently pushes against your hands. The stomach muscles should be relaxed.
● Breathe out slowly. As you exhale say to yourself “I am feeling relaxed and calm”
● Count each breath backward from ten to one. It will prevent the mind from wandering.
● Practice this several times. When you breathe out, try to imagine the tension and stress leaving your body.
There is a new concept called ‘Mindful Meditation’ Mindful meditation commonly practiced by sitting in a comfortable sofa or chair, eyes closed, cross-legged position. Attention is put on movement of the abdomen while breathing in and out, controlling the mind from wandering. Some studies have shown that from a neural perspective, mindful meditation exerts attention regulation, body awareness, and emotional regulation. It needs continued effort to practice correct technique for accomplishing the goal of tranquility and balance. There are many websites offering free information on proper methodology. Recent research studies using MRI scan determined that the part of the brain called the hippocampus which is responsible for learning and memory, thickens after a month, using mindful meditation.
Take an imaginary trip to an ideal place. Close your eyes and take a deep breath and think that you are at the most beautiful spot on the planet. Think about some positive thoughts which will bring a more optimistic outlook. Just sit and relax until the stress is gone. Deep breathing helps the relaxation response which slows the heart rate, lowers blood pressure and helps muscle tension.
Planning your day can help you feel more in control of your life which will ease your stress. Write a to-do list placing the most important task at the top. Declutter your workplace to become more efficient at work.
Prioritizing will assure you to spend your time and energy on those tasks that are truly important to you. Schedule your daily activities and write down to minimize conflicts and last-minute rushes.
A massage relaxes muscle spasm and relieves tension. The beneficial effects of massage are listed below:
● Massage opens up the blood vessels, improving the circulation and relieving congestion.
● Massage increases the blood supply and nutrition to muscles without adding to the loads of lactic acid.
● Massage may have both a sedative and stimulating effect on the nervous system.
● Massage stretches connective tissues, improves its circulation and nutrition
● Massage reduces inflammation due to injury to ligaments and tendons and thus lessens pain and facilitates movement.
● Massage improves the circulation and nutrition of joints and hastens the elimination of harmful toxins. It helps lessen inflammation and swelling in joints and so alleviates pain.
' Music is the medicine of the mind ’
Music changes mood, creates serenity and alleviates anxiety and stress. Music therapy has been used for decades. Music is known to calm down nerves and provide a relaxation response. Music enhances learning environment and spatial reasoning abilities.
Choosing appropriate calming music is personal preference. It is proven that music helps to relax muscles and creates a positive state of mind. Music is known to lower blood pressure and provides other health benefits by generating relaxation responses .
The body responds to thoughts or situations with muscle tension, which can cause pain or discomfort. Progressive muscle relaxation is a technique that could help you reduce stress and become more relaxed. Select a place where you can stretch out
completely such as a carpeted floor. Tense each muscle group for 5 to 10 seconds and then release the muscle and give yourself 15 to 20 seconds to relax and take a deep breath. Try to relax each muscle group a little more each time you do this exercise.
Following muscle groups can be exercised:
● Hands: clench them a few times
● Wrists and forearms: extend them and bend hands back at the wrist.
● Biceps and upper arms: clench hands into fists, bend arms at the elbows, and flex biceps
● Shoulders: Shrug them
● Cheeks and jaws: grin from ear to ear
● Around the mouth: press lips together tightly and then relax
● Back of the neck: press back against the pad and then relax
● Front of the neck: touch chin to the chest
● Take a deep breath, hold it and then exhale
● Stomach: Suck stomach into a tight knot
● Thighs: clench hard
● Lower legs: point toes towards face, as if trying to bring them up to touch it.
● Lower legs: point toes away and curl toes downward at the same time.
Repeat above exercises at least once a day to relax various muscle groups. All these exercises if properly done would help relax muscles and make you feel good.
‘ A hobby a day keeps the doldrums away’
Hobbies can work wonders by getting into leisurely activities, stepping back from the daily routine, finding new projects and enjoying what you really like to do. Hiking in forests and
mountains works wonders by being one with nature. Other hobbies such as gardening, photography, writing, poetry or keeping a journal are stress relieving.”
‘ Laughter is the best medicine’
A good laugh reduces levels of stress hormones, cortisol and epinephrine, and boosts immunity. One of the most effective stress busters occurs in the evening when we watch our favorite sitcoms. Keep something handy that makes you laugh such as
favorite comic strips or humorous Emails. The day you did not have belly laughter, consider that day wasted. Laughter is the best medicine and it is free. Let us try to laugh for a moment; A few chuckles about men; Why are men happier?
● Your hairstyle lasts for years, even decades.
● You can wear shorts, no matter how your legs look.
● Your underwear cost $6.95 for three packs.
● You can never get pregnant.
● Your last name stays the same.
● Your wrinkles add character.
● A two week’s vacation needs just a small bag A survey of 4-8 year old kids sharing their views on love was conducted. Their young and innocent minds create some humor while defining love:
“Love is when you tell a guy you like his shirt, and then he wears it every day.”
Children say funny things innocently; “You have to fall in love before you get married. Then when you are married, you just sit around and read books together.” “When you are born and you see your mommy for the first time.” “I know my sister loves me because she gives me all her old clothes and then she has to go out and buy new ones.
The word Yoga is a Sanskrit language derivative, meaning ‘union’, (uniting ‘individual soul’ with ‘greater soul’). If properly done, it improves flexibility, strengthens muscles and relieves stress, traditionally through four main paths, namely
Action, Devotion, Wisdom, Mental and Physical control. So it is a holistic practice which benefits body and mind. Obviously there are beneficial effects as it improves muscle strength, endurance levels, range of motion, flexibility and balance. These
physical benefits can ultimately draw the practitioners into a deeper spiritual understanding of Yoga. It makes you feel more peaceful with more patience by freeing your mind from outside distractions. Different postures are called Asanas .
There are numerous books available on this subject and training centers all over the world.
Sleep may be defined as natural suspension of voluntary bodily functions leading to cessation of consciousness, resulting in a complete restful stage of mind and body. Lack of sleep may produce metabolic changes that may lead to alterations in the nervous system and irregularities of heart rhythm and blood pressure. Sleep deprivation can cause insomnia and increase the risk of developing depression. Impaired sleep is considered as a symptom of major depression. Inadequate sleep affects blood pressure, stroke, glucose metabolism abnormality and promotes body weight gain. Almost 20% of all serious car crash injuries in the general population are associated with driver’s sleepiness, independent of alcohol effects. There are two types of sleep:
● Rapid Eye Movement (REM)sleep in which the eye moves more rapidly behind your closed lids. This is an activity during which you dream and your body functions speed up.
● Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM). It starts with a light sleep during the first stage. During the second stage, you spend more time. Stages three and four are called deep sleep, or the most restful stage. It is essential to have optimum sleep which is eight hours on the
average. There is a wide variation in sleeping patterns ranging from 6 to 9 hours. If you feel alert and functioning well during daytime and don’t feel tired you’re probably getting adequate sleep. Steps for a good night’s sleep:
● Keeping a regular sleep/wake schedule and to maintain internal biological clocks.
● Darkness in the bed room is conducive for sound sleep
● Avoid stimulants; Caffeine late in the day may keep you awake at night.
● Avoid alcohol, which leads to awakenings and worsens sleep apnea.
● Do not exercise too close to bedtime, day time exercise is beneficial
● Do not eat heavily before bed.
● Do not take sleeping pills
● Read a book or listen to music until you feel sleepy
● Do not go to bed on an empty stomach
● Avoid blue light such as TV, tablets and cellphones before sleep.
COVID‐19 is a respiratory disease which has breathing complica􀆟ons as
described as follows:
● Shortness of breath, even with slight movement, can occur without
a cough. If the chest becomes 􀆟ght and the person cannot breathe
deeply enough to fill their lungs with air, it is a serious issue and they
should act promptly. Persisted pain, pressure in the chest, bluish lips
or face may indicate lack of oxygen.
● Fever, consists of a mild temperature at first and then it elevates to
a higher temperature.
Most children and adults may not feel feverish in the early stage until 100
oF. If the temperature goes up in the late afternoon or evening, then it is a
matter of concern.
● Dry cough is felt deep in the chest, and later becomes a productive
cough with phlegm. If a cough is felt in the breastbone, it may be an
indica􀆟on of inflamed bronchioles.
Prevention & Eradication of COVID-19

Viruses are submicroscopic; they cannot be seen under a light microscope. Although small, viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on earth and infect all kinds of life forms such as humans, animals, plants, bacteria and fungi. The most recently identified novel virus is coronavirus (COVID-19) which has caused a pandemic in the world.
The COVID-19 virus is considered virulent (extremely severe). It spreads by one touching the surface of contaminated places, then their hand, mouth, nose and/or eyes. Spread of this virus is even more rapid in closed spaces and circulating air which carries fine droplets of the virus to longer distances. The transmission from humans to humans it’s not the only way this virus can spread but also from humans to animals and vice versa.
Our well being is determined by the interaction between our genetics and the environment. Although genetic factors are difficult to control, we can control our environment and our well-being as a result. With a comprehensive lifestyle change, such as a healthy diet, stress management, and exercise one can live healthy. Generally, all human disease is the result of interaction of the genetic susceptibility factors and modifiable environmental factors, broadly defined to include infectious, chemical, nutritional, social and behavioral factors.
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease which causes breathing complications. Some patients show no symptoms during the first few days, but are capable of transmitting virus. When the human immune system encounters a virus, it produces antibodies to defend its host cells. The second defense mechanism is Cell-mediated immunity, which involves immune cells. These cells are called T cells that recognize strange viral fragments on the surface of cells and activate the immune system. Although humans have defense mechanisms the best way to prevent coronavirus is to avoid exposure to the virus
There are many ways one can avoid exposure to the virus. First, clean your hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. This is important especially after you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose or coughing. Use sanitizer, which contains at least 70% alcohol. Wear face masks before going in public places and when taking care of someone. Infected patients must wear face masks to contain the virus inside as they are the primary sources of viral particles. Individuals with positive infection were quarantined immediately and traced their contacts. There are many recommendations by the U.S. CDC for the prevention on COVID-19.
South Korea tested about 500,000 citizens and identified infected individuals. This approach has been successful in controlling the spread of the novel virus and has the lowest rate of transmission and deaths in the world as a result. There are only a few deaths out of a country population of 50 millions showing that proper preventative measures can slow the spread.
© 2020  Prevention of Coronavirus